African-American Legal Associations

Charles P. Howard Jr. (1921-1994), a former president of the National Bar Association, discusses discrimination faced by black attorneys.


Blacks could not belong to the American Bar, to the Iowa Bar, to the Des Moines, Iowa, Bar, or to any Bar, anywhere. Blacks were not allowed to be, in those days—in the '20s, teens, '30s and so on—belong to any of those professional organizations. And as a result the only way they could unite and work for each other’s benefits is to form an association.


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